Suitability of GGBS and M Sand as Substitute Material to Cement and River Sand for Making Concrete

  • Jayakumar V., Prabaghar A.


The quest for a suitable replacement material for conventional building materials is wide open, and considerable study has been performed to identify the ideal replacement material for modern construction. The continued use of conventional materials such as regular Portland cement and river sand causes severe environmental concerns. Continuous cement manufacturing emits an equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, trapping heat energy below the atmosphere and raising the planet's temperature. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases contributing to global warming.  The utilization of natural sand has resulted in the scarcity of river sand, while the level of the water table has dropped. So, in order to decrease the negative impacts of cement and river sand, this study focused on employing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Manufactured Sand (M-Sand) as partial replacements for cement and full replacements for river sand in concrete, respectively. The proportion of GGBS utilised as a cement substitute ranges from 0% to 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. M-Sand entirely replaces river sand.  Concrete cubes, cylinders, and prisms of sizes 150 x 150 mm, 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height, and 500 x 100 x 100 mm were used to investigate the characteristics of GGBS and M-Sand included concrete. Concrete cubes and cylinder specimens are used to assess compressive strength. The tensile strength of concrete is determined using concrete cylinder and prism specimens.  According to the observations, the concrete with 40% GGBS and 100% M-Sand demonstrated greater strength than all other specimens. Increases in the amount of GGBS above 50% lower the strength of the concrete. The M-Sand contributed to the concrete's strength, which is somewhat greater and similar to river sand in concrete. The early age strength of GGBS concrete is lower than that of control concrete, but as the curing duration (28 days) increases, the strength increases. It is determined that using up to 40% GGBS and M-Sand can minimise carbon emissions and river sand degradation without compromising concrete strength.

How to Cite
Jayakumar V., Prabaghar A. (2021). Suitability of GGBS and M Sand as Substitute Material to Cement and River Sand for Making Concrete. Design Engineering, 2510-2522. Retrieved from